Resolution on Sudan and South Sudan: the situation after the 2011 referendum

Marietje
The European Parliament, –   having regard to its previous resolutions on Sudan, –   having regard to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed on 9 January 2005, –   having regard to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1978 (2011), –   having regard to the Declaration of the African Union of 31 January 2011, –   having regard to the Council conclusions on Sudan of 31 January 2011 and to Council Decision 9953/11 of 17 May 2011, –   having regard to the UN Security Council Presidential Statement of 3 June 2011, –   having regard to the declaration of 7 February 2011 by the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Catherine Ashton, on behalf of the European Union, on the final referendum results on Southern Sudan’s self-determination, and the statement of 24 May 2011 by Baroness Ashton on the situation in Sudan, –   having regard to the conclusions of the UN-backed consultations on the Darfur peace process, held in Doha, Qatar (27-31 May 2011), –   having regard to the final statement by the European Union referendum observation mission, presented on 2 June 2011, –   having regard to Rule 110(4) of its Rules of Procedure, A. whereas the Southern Sudan Referendum took place on 9-15 January 2011, with an overwhelming majority voting to establish an independent state of South Sudan, B.  whereas South Sudan is expected formally to declare its independence on 9 July 2011, which coincides with the end date of the CPA, C. whereas, despite South Sudan’s reserves of natural resources such as oil, copper and iron as well as forest and fertile land, the vast majority of its population lives in poverty, with one of the highest infant mortality rates and the lowest education indicators in the world, and whereas all of this will contribute to socio-economic, humanitarian and security challenges, D. whereas some aspects of the CPA have not been implemented on time or have not yet been implemented, and considerable effort is needed to find agreement on post-referendum negotiations on issues such as the sharing of oil revenue, border demarcation, citizenship and the division of debts and assets, E.  whereas the referendum to determine whether Abyei will be part of North or South Sudan, which should have coincided with the referendum on South Sudan, has not taken place, and this has resulted in a severe escalation of violence in the area, F.  whereas the status of disputed areas remains unsettled, and the situation in Abyei is worsening, causing the death of hundreds of people and the exodus of thousands, and leaving people vulnerable to food insecurity, disease and lack of access to basic services such as health care and drinking water, G. whereas the situation in Darfur remains a great source of concern and the UN Mission in Darfur recently reported bombardments by the Government, and the taking hostage of several aid workers in the region; whereas the mission regularly suffers harassment, kidnappings and general security threats, 1.  Welcomes the peaceful and credible conduct of both Sudan and South Sudan in the 2011 Southern Sudan Referendum, the efforts by all parties to the CPA and the commitment they have demonstrated to it; views this as a crucial step in implementing the CPA and as a positive sign for the peaceful coexistence of both countries; 2.  Reiterates its full respect for the outcome of the referendum as the expression of the democratic will of the people of South Sudan; calls on both North and South Sudan actively to pursue the promotion of democratic governance and the establishment of long-term peace, security and prosperity for both countries, with respect for human, social and economic rights; 3.  Calls on the South Sudan authorities to promote the development of South Sudan as a modern, pluralistic, democratic state based on the rule of law and respecting human rights, in particular women’s and children’s rights, and the primacy of the right of citizens to choose their government through regular free elections, with protection of freedom of movement, freedom of association and freedom to express one’s political views enshrined in both Constitution and law; 4.  Strongly condemns the deliberate attack on the UN Mission to Sudan (UNMIS) on 10 May 2011 in the Abyei area and denounces the militarisation of that area by both North and South Sudan; urges both parties to the CPA to continue to ensure the safety and security of all peoples in Sudan, in particular in the state of Abyei, without altering the demographic composition of the region; calls for both Sudanese and South Sudanese armed forces to withdraw from Abyei and for both sides to show restraint by engaging in an immediate constructive dialogue for a peaceful solution on the status of Abyei within the framework of the CPA; 5.  Underlines its support for the efforts of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel on Sudan, under the leadership of Thabo Mbeki, to facilitate negotiations between the parties to the CPA, and the efforts of the UN Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Sudan, Haile Menkerios, to mediate between the two sides in the Abyei region; reaffirms that the EU must be ready to provide any further assistance that is required; 6.  Urges all parties to the CPA to engage in a continued and constructive dialogue to address post-referendum issues including common borders, citizenship arrangements for citizens both north and south, the sharing of oil revenues and use of pipelines, and the holding of popular consultations in Blue Nile and Southern Kordofan; 7.  Underlines the importance of ensuring the effective and safe management of returnees to the south, in terms of transit, technical capacity (lack of urban planners and surveyors), infrastructure, the allocation of land and access to basic services; 8.  Welcomes the Council’s announcement of 17 May 2011 that EUR 200 million would be allocated to South Sudan in addition to the EUR 150 million allocated last year to assist the most vulnerable populations throughout Sudan; points out that EU development aid is at the ready to assist both sides; stresses that the new money should be used to support basic services, notably education and health, agriculture, food security and institutional capacity-building; calls for the accession of South Sudan to the Cotonou Agreement as a matter of urgency and for the EU to take all steps necessary to ensure that funding from the European Development Fund becomes available as soon as possible; 9.  Emphasises that the EU must play a leading role at the South Sudan Pledging Conference later in 2011 and actively encourage other donors to do the same; calls on international creditors to alleviate Sudan’s and South Sudan’s international debt; 10. Calls on the Government of South Sudan to enact policies on foreign investment in the interest of the population, so that foreign investment in natural resources benefits the development of the domestic economy in order to combat poverty; emphasises that the EU must do all it can to ensure that multinational entities and foreign enterprises operating in the region are sufficiently regulated and that they transparently declare their activities and revenues; 11. Welcomes the UN Security Council decision to extend the mandate of UNMIS and to send additional peacekeeping forces to Sudan; considers that a continued UN presence is extremely valuable to the peaceful development of two viable states; calls on both Sudan and South Sudan to welcome the UN presence and ensure its safety; 12. Stresses the importance of the EU maintaining its humanitarian aid for Sudan and South Sudan after 9 July 2011; encourages a substantial humanitarian presence and capacity in the region with adequate means to ensure the safety of humanitarian organisations; 13. Welcomes the conclusions of the UN-backed consultations on the Darfur peace process; calls on all parties to abide by the ceasefire and cessation of hostilities agreements already signed; points out the importance of full transparency during negotiations on the Darfur and Abyei issues, as well as the general north-south dialogue; calls for the representation of all parties to the disputes, as well as civil society and political leaders at local, regional, national and international levels; 14. Urges the Government of South Sudan to adopt a transparent, accountable and inclusive approach to governance through the constitutional review process; stresses that it is important for all political parties to work together to represent fully all the people of the country and help to build stable, democratic political institutions. 15. Calls on both sides, in the run-up to independence day on 9 July 2011, to present concrete plans on the setting-up and/or reform of their institutions in order for the two States to be viable as of that date; calls for the EU delegations in Sudan and South Sudan proactively to circulate and implement the recommendations of the recent EU election and referendum observation missions; 16. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the UN Security Council and Secretary-General and the EU Special Representative to South Sudan, the Government of Sudan, the Government of South Sudan, the African Union institutions and the Chair of the African Union High-Level Panel on Sudan, the ACP-EU Parliamentary Assembly and the governments of the EU Member States.