This website is an archive of the work of Marietje Schaake in the European Parliament between 2009 and 2019. Marietje can be reached at

Written Questions on the export of Finspy technology to Bahrain

On 29 October, Marietje Schaake submitted Written Questions to the European Commission about the export of Finspy technology to Bahrain. Author: Marietje Schaake Subject: Export of Finspy technology to Bahrain  Finspy spyware technology, supplied by Gamma International in 2010, was used by Egyptian Security Forces to monitor the online activities of dissidents.[1] Since 2010, Bahraini authorities have used similar Finfisher software provided by Gamma to spy on three Bahraini nationals residing in the United Kingdom.[2]    On 13 October 2014, Privacy International filed a criminal complaint against Gamma Group. The EU asserts that it will ‘design an effective EU response to the use of cyber-space for proliferation activities and clarification of controls of cybertools’.[3] 1. Is the Commission aware of the continued exports of surveillance technologies from European companies to countries with oppressive regimes? 2. Does the Commission judge that the measures it has announced in its communication of 24/04/2014, with regards the EU's export control policy are sufficient and if not, how will the Commission prevent the export of such technologies to oppressive regimes in the future? 3. How does the Commission assess the alleged spying by Bahraini national authorities on the territory of an EU member state impacts the territorial sovereignty of the United Kingdom and the European Union, or even constitute a violation of the principle of sovereignty under international law? [1] [2] [3] The Review of export control policy: ensuring security and competitiveness in a changing world, p6. Export of Finspy technology to Bahrain